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Notapor blas » Lun, 05 Mar 2012, 13:20

Agilent
Spectrum and Signal Analyzer
Measurements and Noise

http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb ... -4008E.pdf

Table of Contents
Part I: Noise Measurements.............................................................................................................................................................3
Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................................................3
Simple noise—Baseband, Real, Gaussian...............................................................................................................................................3
Bandpassed noise—I and Q........................................................................................................................................................................3
Measuring the power of noise with an envelope detector...................................................................................................................6
Logarithmic processing.................................................................................................................................................................................7
Measuring the power of noise with a log-envelope scale....................................................................................................................8
Equivalent noise bandwidth.........................................................................................................................................................................8
The noise marker.............................................................................................................................................................................................9
Spectrum analyzers and envelope detectors.........................................................................................................................................10
Cautions when measuring noise with spectrum and signal analyzers............................................................................................12
Part II: Measurements of Noise-like Signals..............................................................................................................................14
The noise-like nature of digital signals...................................................................................................................................................14
Channel-power measurements..................................................................................................................................................................14
Adjacent-Channel Power (ACP)................................................................................................................................................................16
Carrier power..................................................................................................................................................................................................16
Peak-detected noise and TDMA ACP measurements........................................................................................................................17
Peak-detected noise in continuous and sampled measurements...............................................................................................18.
Part III: Averaging and the Noisiness of Noise Measurements...............................................................................................19
Variance and averaging................................................................................................................................................................................19
Averaging a number of computed results...............................................................................................................................................20
Swept versus FFT analysis.........................................................................................................................................................................20
Zero span ......................................................................................................................................................................................................20
Averaging with an average detector........................................................................................................................................................20
Measuring the power of noise with a power envelope scale............................................................................................................20
The standard deviation of measurement noise.....................................................................................................................................21
Examples.........................................................................................................................................................................................................22
The standard deviation of CW measurements......................................................................................................................................23
Part IV: Compensation for Instrumentation Noise......................................................................................................................24
CW signals and log versus power detection.........................................................................................................................................24
Power-detection measurements and noise subtraction.....................................................................................................................25
Noise Floor Extension (NFE) for noise compensation...................................................................................................................25
Log scale ideal for CW measurements...................................................................................................................................................26
Bibliography.......................................................................................................................................................................................28
Glossary of Terms..............................................................................................................................................................................29
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